INCLUSIVE EDUCATION & RIGHT TO EDUCATION IN INDIA
Inclusive education implies all young learners, young people-with or without disabilities being able to learn together through access to common pre-schools and schools with an appropriate network of support services. Equal Opportunities , Protection of Rights and Full Participation Act was initiated in 1995 and implemented in 1998 The Indian Equal Opportunities and Right of Persons with Disabilities Act 1995, rule 26, speaks about free education of children with disabilities up to the age of 18 years in an appropriate environment. There is no specific mention of IE in the Act. All children have access to general education system, to expand the coverage to reach the unreached population. 02. The governments have to adopt as a matter of law or policy the principle of inclusive education, enrolling all children in regular schools unless there are compelling reasons for doing otherwise. 01.The governments have to give the highest policy and budgetary priority to improve their education systems to enable them to include all children regardless of individual differences or difficulties. PRACTICING INCLUSIVE EDUCATION MOST COST EFFECTIVE RIGHTS REALISED AND ACTUALISED TEACHER EFFECTIVE IN INCLUDING ALL CHILDREN IN LEARNING PROCESS EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR PARTICIPATION CHILD CENTRED LEAST RESTRICTIVE CHILD REMAINS AS NATURAL SELF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION. Lack of MotivationNegative Attitudes Lack of Knowledge & Lack of TrainingLack of Resources Inadequate Prejudices Interest
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION
1) Both the "normal" children and the disabled children can learn from each other, thus teaching acceptance of one other.
2) Help the disabled children develop socially.
3) Everyone is granted an equal education.
4) Prepare the disabled children for a future that they might otherwise not have.
5) It help the disabled child to develop a sense of pride in their work because they actually fill like they accomplished something.
1) The disabled children can be disruptive.
2) Their is a problem with bullying.
3) The teacher tends to be impatient towards the disabled child or simply don't want to be bothered with these students.
4) The teacher might talk over the disabled child's head thus leaving the child bored.
5) The teacher has to slow down to teach the disabled child thus creating boredom among the other students.
The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act or Right to Education Act (RTE), is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted on 4 August 2009, which describes the modalities of the importance of free and compulsory education for children between 6 and 14 in India under Article 21a of the Indian Constitution.Uniforms and Books are also provided Free Food Free Education Free transport for backward class, schedule castes and schedule tribes. The features given by RTE to a student were shown. It contained:-
FEATURES PROVIDED UNDER RTE
The Right to Education of persons with disabilities until 18 years of age has also been made a fundamental right. A number of other provisions regarding improvement of school infrastructure, teacher-student ratio and faculty are made in the Act. The RTE Act is the first legislation in the world that puts the responsibility of ensuring enrollment, attendance and completion on the Government. It is the parents' responsibility to send the children to schools in the U.S. and other countries. The Act makes education a fundamental right of every child between the ages of 6 and 14 and specifies minimum norms in elementary schools. It requires all private schools to reserve 25% of seats to children from poor families It also prohibits all unrecognized schools from practice, and makes provisions for no donation or capitation fees and no interview of the child or parent for admission
Financial Help from Government:- Furthermore, the Finance Commission has provided a sum of Rs25,000croreto the states for implementation of the Act. Mr. Sibal has further announced that the government has full arrangements of the funds required for efficient implementation of the Act. Expectations from Private Schools:-The Act also orders he Private educational institutions to reserve25 percent seats for children from the weaker and disadvantaged sections and this ration is always expected to be chock-a-block. Next, all the schools have been asked to admit such students without admission tests and other documental requisites. Also, the schools can't refuse the entry of students with reasons like late or early admission, full seats etc. However this decision is being followed by huge protests. Help to Poor Students:-Now, any student can claim for education with the provision of required facilities, what he needs is a little support of the government and some enthusiastic social workers.
Allocated budgets to fructify goals low with 55:45 sharing of funds between centre and stateMaintaining student-teacher ratio of 30:1(the current being 50:1 and 80:1 with some schools). Meeting scarce service providers.
RECOMMENDATIONS / SUGGESTIONS
In the light of the challenges discussed earlier, following are some suggestions which may be helpful to meet the challenges:
1). The state governments are required to show promptness for the implementation of the RTE Act. The states who have not yet released any notification regarding the Act must do it without any further delay. The Central Government should impose a time limit to release funds to the states. If any state government still shows apathy to release notification, then no funds should be released by the Centre to that state for the establishment of new schools. State governments should show full commitment for the implementation of the Act.
2). Primary schools with all minimum required infrastructure facilities should be established in the neglected areas on priority basis. Central government should release budget of its share to the states at the earliest. Facilities in the existing government schools should be expanded. To avoid the closure of unrecognized private schools for not fulfilling the prescribed recognition standards within three years, these schools must be helped to improve their facilities by resource support and providing linkages with financial institutions. To meet budgetary constraints, stress must be given on cost effectiveness and accountability at every level.
3). To meet the increasing demand of qualified and trained full time teachers, the teachers in required number must be recruited at the earliest. Pupil-teacher ratio must be maintained as per requirement. As more and more children move into the primary school age group, it becomes needful to build more and more schools and recruit more teachers for sustained improvement in the quality of education.
4). Primary schools need to be made aware of the provisions made for 25 percent reservation of seats for the economically and socially weaker and disadvantaged children and the role of school managing committees in this regard. The identification, selection and verification procedure of such children should be well defined and well informed. It should also be notified that how the whole process will be monitored.
5). There is need to streamline educational administration. The pace of implementation of the Act can become faster if bottlenecks in administration are removed. Altogether, it is essential to adopt an integrated approach and establish linkages between education and other related areas such as child care, nutrition and health. Each state should formulate a 'State Programme of Action' and each district and school should formulate a Programme of Action of its own by taking into account the State Programme of Action. 6. Teachers' performance is the most crucial input in the field of education. Well qualified and highly motivated teachers are the key to effective implementation of the curriculum. They give impetus to the teaching-learning process. Top priority, therefore, should be fixed for the improvement in the quality and content of teacher education programme.
In order to meet the challenges and surmount the hurdles that stand in the way of implementing Right to Education Act, it is needful to concentrate all efforts with full dedication and commitment. Not only the central and state governments but the nation as a whole should take responsibility in this regard. Community participation and support can make marked difference in achieving this goal. Despite the above challenges of Inclusive Education, the progress in this direction has been insignificant. No debate is required in this regard, we believe that Inclusive Education is the only answer for ‘Education for all’ which includes children with disabilities. The process of inclusive education has started, but much needs to be done to achieve the desired result.